# Correlated Ohio Academic Content Standards

The lesson plans in this teachers guide fulfill the following Ohio Academic Content Standards.

### Physical Science

#### Grade 7

6-8 Benchmark D. Describe that energy takes many forms, some forms represent kinetic energy and some forms represent potential energy; and during energy transformations the total amount of energy remains constant.

Y2003.CSC.S03.G06-08.BD.L07.I02    Nature of Energy

02. Describe how an object can have potential energy due to its position or chemical composition and can have kinetic energy due to its motion.

Y2003.CSC.S03.G06-08.BD.L07.I03    Nature of Energy

03. Identify different forms of energy (e.g., electrical, mechanical, chemical, thermal, nuclear, radiant and acoustic).

Y2003.CSC.S03.G06-08.BD.L07.I04    Nature of Energy

04. Explain how energy can change forms but the total amount of energy remains constant.

#### Grade 8

6-8 Benchmark B. In simple cases, describe the motion of objects and conceptually describe the effects of forces on an object.

Y2003.CSC.S03.G06-08.BB.L08.I01    Forces and Motion

01. Describe how the change in the position (motion) of an object is always judged and described in comparison to a reference point.

Y2003.CSC.S03.G06-08.BB.L08.I02   Forces and Motion

02. Explain that motion describes the change in the position of an object (characterized by a speed and direction) as time changes.

Y2003.CSC.S03.G06-08.BB.L08.I03   Forces and Motion

03. Explain that an unbalanced force acting on an object changes that object's speed and/or direction.

#### Grade 9

9-10 Benchmark E. Demonstrate that energy can be considered to be either kinetic (motion) or potential (stored).

Y2003.CSC.S03.G09-10.BE.L09.I12     Nature of Energy

12. Explain how an object's kinetic energy depends on its mass and its speed

9-10 Benchmark F. Explain how energy may change form or be redistributed but the total quantity of energy is conserved.

Y2003.CSC.S03.G09-10.BF.L09.I17    Nature of Energy

17. Demonstrate that thermal energy can be transferred by conduction, convection or radiation (e.g., through materials by the collision of particles, moving air masses or across empty space by forms of electromagnetic radiation).

9-10 Benchmark D. Explain the movement of objects by applying Newton's three laws of motion.

Y2003.CSC.S03.G09-10.BD.L09.I21    Forces and Motion

21. Demonstrate that motion is a measurable quantity that depends on the observer's frame of reference and describe the object's motion in terms of position, velocity, acceleration and time.

Y2003.CSC.S03.G09-10.BD.L09.I22    Forces and Motion

22. Demonstrate that any object does not accelerate (remains at rest or maintains a constant speed and direction of motion) unless an unbalanced (net) force acts on it.

Y2003.CSC.S03.G09-10.BD.L09.I23    Forces and Motion

23. Explain the change in motion (acceleration) of an object. Demonstrate that the acceleration is proportional to the net force acting on the object and inversely proportional to the mass of the object.

Y2003.CSC.S03.G09-10.BD.L09.I24    Forces and Motion

24. Demonstrate that whenever one object exerts a force on another, an equal amount of force is exerted back on the first object.

Y2003.CSC.S03.G09-10.BD.L09.I25    Forces and Motion

25. Demonstrate the ways in which frictional forces constrain the motion of objects (e.g., a car traveling around a curve, a block on an inclined plane, a person running, an airplane in flight).

### Scientific Inquiry

#### Grade 6

6-8 Benchmark A. Explain that there are differing sets of procedures for guiding scientific investigations and procedures are determined by the nature of the investigation, safety considerations and appropriate tools.

Y2003.CSC.S05.G06-08.BA.L06.I01    Doing Scientific Inquiry

01. Explain that there are not fixed procedures for guiding scientific investigations; however, the nature of an investigation determines the procedures needed.

6-8 Benchmark B. Analyze and interpret data from scientific investigations using appropriate mathematical skills in order to draw valid conclusions.

Y2003.CSC.S05.G06-08.BB.L06.I03   Doing Scientific Inquiry

03. Distinguish between observation and inference.

Y2003.CSC.S05.G06-08.BB.L06.I04   Doing Scientific Inquiry

04. Explain that a single example can never prove that something is always correct, but sometimes a single example can disprove something.

#### Grade 7

6-8 Benchmark A. Explain that there are differing sets of procedures for guiding scientific investigations and procedures are determined by the nature of the investigation, safety considerations and appropriate tools

Y2003.CSC.S05.G06-08.BA.L07.I01   Doing Scientific Inquiry

01. Explain that variables and controls can affect the results of an investigation and that ideally one variable should be tested at a time; however it is not always possible to control all variables.

Y2003.CSC.S05.G06-08.BA.L07.I02   Doing Scientific Inquiry

02. Identify simple independent and dependent variables.

Y2003.CSC.S05.G06-08.BA.L07.I03   Doing Scientific Inquiry

03. Formulate and identify questions to guide scientific investigations that connect to science concepts and can be answered through scientific investigations.

6-8 Benchmark B. Analyze and interpret data from scientific investigations using appropriate mathematical skills in order to draw valid conclusions.

Y2003.CSC.S05.G06-08.BB.L07.I07   Doing Scientific Inquiry

07. Use graphs, tables and charts to study physical phenomena and infer mathematical relationships between variables (e.g., speed and density).

#### Grade 8

6-8 Benchmark B. Analyze and interpret data from scientific investigations using appropriate mathematical skills in order to draw valid conclusions.

Y2003.CSC.S05.G06-08.BB.L08.I03   Doing Scientific Inquiry

03. Read, construct and interpret data in various forms produced by self and others in both written and oral form (e.g., tables, charts, maps, graphs, diagrams and symbols).

Y2003.CSC.S05.G06-08.BB.L08.I04   Doing Scientific Inquiry

04. Apply appropriate math skills to interpret quantitative data (e.g., mean, median and mode).

#### Grade 9

9-10 Benchmark A. Participate in and apply the processes of scientific investigation to create models and to design, conduct, evaluate and communicate the results of these investigations.

Y2003.CSC.S05.G09-10.BA.L09.I01   Doing Scientific Inquiry

01. Distinguish between observations and inferences given a scientific situation.

Y2003.CSC.S05.G09-10.BA.L09.I03   Doing Scientific Inquiry

03. Construct, interpret and apply physical and conceptual models that represent or explain systems, objects, events or concepts.

Y2003.CSC.S05.G09-10.BA.L09.I05   Doing Scientific Inquiry

05. Develop oral and written presentations using clear language, accurate data, appropriate graphs, tables, maps and available technology.

Y2003.CSC.S05.G09-10.BA.L09.I06   Doing Scientific Inquiry

06. Draw logical conclusions based on scientific knowledge and evidence from investigations.

### Scientific Ways of Knowing

#### Grade 6

6-8 Benchmark A. Use skills of scientific inquiry processes (e.g., hypothesis, record keeping, description and explanation).

Y2003.CSC.S06.G06-08.BA.L06.I01    Nature of Science

01. Identify that hypotheses are valuable even when they are not supported.

Y2003.CSC.S06.G06-08.BA.L06.I02   Ethical Practices

02. Describe why it is important to keep clear, thorough and accurate records.

#### Grade 7

6-8 Benchmark B. Explain the importance of reproducibility and reduction of bias in scientific methods.

Y2003.CSC.S06.G06-08.BB.L07.I01    Ethical Practices

01. Show that the reproducibility of results is essential to reduce bias in scientific investigations.

Y2003.CSC.S06.G06-08.BB.L07.I02   Ethical Practices

02. Describe how repetition of an experiment may reduce bias.6-8 Benchmark C. Give examples of how thinking scientifically is helpful in daily life.

Y2003.CSC.S06.G06-08.BC.L07.I03    Science and Society

03. Describe how the work of science requires a variety of human abilities and qualities that are helpful in daily life (e.g., reasoning, creativity, skepticism and openness).

#### Grade 8

6-8 Benchmark A. Use skills of scientific inquiry processes (e.g., hypothesis, record keeping, description and explanation).

Y2003.CSC.S06.G06-08.BA.L08.I01    Nature of Science

01. Identify the difference between description (e.g., observation and summary) and explanation (e.g., inference, prediction, significance and importance).6-8 Benchmark B. Explain the importance of reproducibility and reduction of bias in scientific methods.

Y2003.CSC.S06.G06-08.BB.L08.I02    Ethical Practices

02. Explain why it is important to examine data objectively and not let bias affect observations.

#### Grade 9

9-10 Benchmark B. Explain how scientific inquiry is guided by knowledge, observations, ideas and questions.

Y2003.CSC.S06.G09-10.BB.L09.I05    Scientific Theories

05. Justify that scientific theories are explanations of large bodies of information and/or observations that withstand repeated testing.

Y2003.CSC.S06.G09-10.BB.L09.I06   Scientific Theories

06. Explain that inquiry fuels observation and experimentation that produce data that are the foundation of scientific disciplines. Theories are explanations of these data.

Y2003.CSC.S06.G09-10.BB.L09.I07   Scientific Theories

07. Recognize that scientific knowledge and explanations have changed over time, almost always building on earlier knowledge.

9-10 Benchmark D. Recognize that scientific literacy is part of being a knowledgeable citizen.

Y2003.CSC.S06.G09-10.BD.L09.I08    Science and Society

08. Illustrate that much can be learned about the internal workings of science and the nature of science from the study of scientists, their daily work and their efforts to advance scientific knowledge in their area of study.

Y2003.CSC.S06.G09-10.BD.L09.I09   Science and Society

09. Investigate how the knowledge, skills and interests learned in science classes apply to the careers students plan to pursue.

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